“A friend of the lunatics”

October 18, 1900

Archival Moment

The Waterford Hospital was once known as the Lunatic Asylum

The Waterford Hospital was once known as the Lunatic Asylum

Walking past the “Lunatic Asylum” (now known as the Waterford Hospital) citizens were gladdened that officials were “endeavoring to get a water supply to the building’  but upon closer inspection they were  not so happy to discover that it was the “poor unfortunate inmates” of the hospital that were doing the work!!

The lot of the ‘lunatics” in the early 19th century was not a happy one. They were often confined to basements, attics and jails under the most wretched conditions and it was only with the founding of the St. John‘s public hospital in 1813 that a separate ward was established for them.

With the opening of the ‘Lunatic Asylum’ on Waterford Bridge Road, St. John’s in 1854 as the Hospital for Mental and Nervous Diseases it was thought that the lot of the lunatics would improve. “A friend of the Lunatics” in October 1900 was not so confident that advances had been made.   In a letter to the Editor of the Evening Telegram he wrote that he was walking past the hospital and “was troubled to find that its poor unfortunate inmates, are compelled to dig from early morning till late at night, endeavoring to get a water supply to the building.”

He was so appalled at the situation that he demanded “that the Board of Works institute an enquiry into the management of the Lunatic Asylum.”

He wrote “Is it fair to the inmates of that institution to have them wading in water, digging over half a mile for this supply.  I say it is not, and the person in charge ought to be brought to account for his conduct.”

The initiatives that were coming under criticism were likely instituted by Dr. Lawrence Keegan who believed that having the patients working was a positive and effective form of occupational therapy, he felt that some patients did benefit from working especially the able-bodied.  Keegan who had been on tour of asylums in Great Britain, England, Scotland and Ireland in 1899 and had consulted with British experts that saw value in physical work.

The ‘friend of the Lunatics’ concluded his letter to the Editor of the Evening Telegram:

“We have an engineer who is competent to improve the method of said water supply.  Why should the doctor (Lawrence Keegan) be consulted, he is not there for that purpose. Let him attend to the strawberry beds and try to help the revenue in that way, but leave the water supply to Mr. (Hubert C.) Burchell, (Newfoundland Government Engineer from 1884 to 1905) who I am certain, who is not in favor of employing lunatics to take the bread from the mouths of taxpayers.”

The practice was soon discontinued, the new administrator of the Asylum, Dr. James Sinclair Tait believed that this type of occupational therapy was ineffective and fiscally unsound and had such new initiatives cancelled.

Recommended Archival Collection: Search the online data base – https://www.therooms.ca/collections-research/our-collections use key words – lunatic and Waterford.

Recommended Reading: Out of Mind, Out of Sight by Patricia O’Brien: A History of the Waterford Hospital. St. John’s: Breakwater Books; 1989.

Old Word: Middle English: from Old French lunatique, from late Latin lunaticus, from Latin luna ‘moon’ (from the belief that changes of the moon caused intermittent insanity)

Labrador Boundary Case Presentation

In March 1927, the Privy Council in London issued a decision that settled the dispute between Newfoundland and Canada over the boundary between Labrador and Quebec, bringing an end to over a hundred years of boundary movement and legal wrangling.

Join us as members of the Law Society of Newfoundland and Labrador recreate the arguments in this historic case and a Privy Council of their peers

Retired judge and legal historian, John Joy, will act as moderator and introduce the event, describing the background of the case; Michael Crosbie Q.C. will present the Newfoundland case; and Ian Kelly Q.C. the case for Canada.

The Privy Council will be a group of law students, who will then provide their decision.

Whatever the outcome, John Joy will provide a summary of the actual 1927 Privy Council decision.

Audiences in St. John’s and Happy Valley-Goose Bay will have the opportunity to ask questions or make comments.

Place: Hampton Hall,  Marine Institute at Ridge Road.is through the main front door at the Marine Institute and to the left.
Time: 7:30 pm.
Date: October 25
Free parking is available in front and to the west of the building.

For more information contact:

John Joy, co-chair S. S. Daisy Legal History Committee
T: (709) 231-2292
johnjoy@provincial.court.nl.ca

Recommended Reading: The 1927 Privy Council Decision:   http://www.bailii.org/uk/cases/UKPC/1927/1927_25.pdf

 

 

 

Harrington Harbour, featured in new photograph album at The Rooms

Harrington Harbour

Martha H. Dickson (later Cameron) was a nurse employed by the International Grenfell Association (IGA)  in the community of Harrington Harbour, Quebec, from 1911 to 1914.   She was born in Sonora, Nova Scotia on 23 September 1885.  She graduated nursing from the Jeffrey Hale Hospital in Quebec.

After leaving Harrington Harbour she married John MacKenzie Cameron (1875-1954) and they had five children. Cameron was a widower and they also raised four children from his previous marriage. For the last 36 years of her life Martha Dickson Cameron was completely blind, she died 9 October 1967.

The album created by Martha H. Dickson is a fascinating pictorial record of the community of Harrington Harbour and some of the livyers.   It was created by  Nurse Dickson as she worked  with Dr. Wilfred Grenfell, founder of the famous medical mission in the region. Grenfell built a hospital on the island, earning the village its nickname of Hospital Island.

Harrington Hospital

Harrington Harbour Hospital served the Lower North Shore area of Quebec from Harrington Harbour to Blanc Sablon and Natashquan.The album was created prior to the settlement of the Labrador Boundary Dispute (1927). Some images were described as “Labrador”, referencing the common identification of the region at the time as the Canadian Labrador. The region is now recognized as the Lower North Shore of Quebec.

Harrington Harbour was named after Charles Stanhope, 3rd Earl of Harrington.

Local tradition claims that this is the island on which 16th century French noblewoman Marguerite de La Rocque was marooned by her relative Jean-François Roberval as punishment for an affair. “Marguerite’s Cave” is one of the attractions on the island.

Another attraction is the Jacques Cartier Monument, commemorating the French explorer and surveyor of the Gulf of St Lawrence.

Harrington Harbour is a small village on average 300 residents, originally settled by Newfoundland families in search of fish stocks in the second half of the 19th century.

Some of the people identified in the album were her colleagues and neighbors.  Dr. Tullo, Rev. C. Stevens, Deacon Robert Bobbitt, Reverend J.F. and Mrs. MacDonald, Marion V. Brewster, R.N., Dr. John Grieve and Dr. Henry Mather Hare.

Please click on the link below  to see the photograph album of Martha H. Dickson Cameron

http://gencat.eloquent-systems.com/therooms_permalink.html?key=133605

 

 

World War II came home to Newfoundland.

ARCHIVAL MOMENT

October 14, 1942

Photo Credit: The Rooms Provincial Archives: C 2-48; Remember the SS Caribou and Her Gallant Crew

Photo Credit: The Rooms Provincial Archives: C 2-48; Remember the SS Caribou and Her Gallant Crew

In the early morning hours of October 14, 1942 a lone German torpedo from the German submarine U69 hit the  SS Caribou,  the Sydney to Port aux Basques ferry on  route to Newfoundland, under Captain Benjamin Tavernor.  World War II came home to Newfoundland.

Immediately following the hit chaos ensued as passengers, thrown from their bunks by the explosion rushed topside to the lifeboat stations.

Of the 237 people aboard the Caribou when she left North Sydney, 136 had perished. Fifty-seven were military personnel and 49 were civilians. Of the 46-man crew, mostly Newfoundlanders, only 15 remained. Five families suffered particularly heavy losses: the Tappers (5 dead), the Toppers (4), the Allens (3), the Tavernors (the captain and his two sons), and the Skinners (3). The local press reported:

 “Many Families [were] Wiped Out.”

News of the sinking sparked much outrage as victims,  friends and families, and the populace at large, condemned the Nazis for targeting a passenger ferry. An editorialist with The Royalist newspaper in St. John’s wrote that the sinking:

“was such a useless crime from the point of view of warfare. It will have no effect upon the course of the war except to steel our resolve that the Nazi blot on humanity must be eliminated from our world.”

The Channel/Port aux Basques area was the worst hit as many crew members of the Caribou were local men. A funeral on October 18 for six victims was attended by hundreds of mourners, and a procession that followed the bodies to the grave sites reportedly measured two kilometres long.

Recommended Archival Collection:  Search the Rooms Archives on line:  https://www.therooms.ca/collections-research/our-collections

At The Rooms Provincial Archives take some time to read  VA  40- 16:  A page from The Evening Telegram, St. John’s, NL. with several newspaper articles about the sinking of the SS Caribou, including names of those lost ; death of assistant matron, Agnes Wilkie, General Hospital.

Recommended Reading: Thornhill, H. It Happened in October : The Tragic Sinking of the S.S. Caribou. Newfoundland: H. Thornhill, 1945.

Recommended Song:  The Caribou; Lyrics can be found at: http://www.mun.ca/folklore/leach/songs/NFLD1/17A-05.htm

“Moisture might be noticed in many an eye … “

Archival Moment

October 4, 1914

Photo Credit: The Rooms Provincial Archives: A 8-28; Soldiers of the First Newfoundland Regiment marching at Pleasantville, St. John’s.

Photo Credit: The Rooms Provincial Archives: A 8-28; Soldiers of the First Newfoundland Regiment marching at Pleasantville, St. John’s.

October 4, 1914, is a significant date on the Newfoundland and Labrador  calendar, it was on this date that the Newfoundland Regiment set sail on the transport vessel the SS Florizel to fight for Country and King. This was the first of some 27 groups to embark from Newfoundland’s shores during the course of the First World War.

These men that marched from the camps in Pleasantville on Quidi Vidi Lake, St. John’s to the Florizel are the men that are celebrated in our history as the First Five Hundred, or by their other popular designation “The Blue Puttees.”

These were the men that faced near annihilation at Beaumont Hamel on July 1, 1916, and costly major engagements in October at Gueudecourt and at Monchy-le-Preux. On the battle field these proud soldiers solidified their place in history. The Regiment earned no less than 280 separate decorations, 77 of which were awarded to original members of the “first 500” of which 170 were killed in action.

On October 3, 1914  as they marched through the streets of St. John’s to their transport they were not thinking of death, this was an “adventure” for them.  For many it would be the first time away from home.

The day following their departure from St. John’s, a reporter for the St. John’s newspaper The Daily News, wrote on October 5, 1914:

“The 1st Newfoundland Regiment actually started for the front when they left Pleasantville at 4:30 Saturday afternoon.  (October 3, 1914) Under the command of Captain Franklin the volunteers headed by the Catholic Cadet Corps (C.C.C.)  Band proceeded by King’s Bridge, Circular, Military Roads, Prescott  and Water Street to the Furness Withy Company’s pier where the transport Florizel lay to take them away.

Thousands accompanied them on the march from the camp and crowds gathered along the route to bid them God’s speed. The principal buildings, stores and many private residences were gaily decked with flags as was also all the shipping in the harbour.

The crush, all the business have been suspended, near the embarking point was indeed a sight, the gathering being undoubtedly the largest ever seen in the city. Every vantage point was seized to see the men go by only with the greatest difficulty did the police and the men of the H.M.S. Calypso keep the crowds from pressing on to the pier.

The volunteers are indeed a body the Colony may be proud of and as they swung along, they warmly answered the wishes of their good friends. All were in high spirits and showed plainly their eagerness to be off, evidencing the true spirit of patriotism.

At the pier His Excellency the Governor, Lady Davidson and children and Premier, members of both branches of the legislature, clergymen of all denominations and citizens prominent in every walk of life, had assembled.  Arriving at the pier, each company was drawn up inside the entrance and marched on board the ship, between lines of people whose enthusiasm knew no bounds, the (Catholic Cadet Corps)  C.C.C., (Church Lads Brigade); C.L.B, , Methodist Guards and Salvation Army bands meanwhile rendering spirited airs,  also the hymn  “God be with you till we meet again.”

Some little delay was caused in the embarking, the men being delayed by friends who would not be denied the saying of the last farewell. As the men ringed along the ships rail a continuous outburst of cheering was kept up.

Many pathetic scenes were witnessed and suspicious moisture might be noticed in many an eye while those who had immediate relatives in the ranks wept bitterly.

 

Photo Credit: At the Rooms Provincial Archives: A 58-68; 1st Newfoundland Regiment along the Florizel’s rail ready to depart St. John's October 4, 1914.

Photo Credit: At the Rooms Provincial Archives: A 58-68; 1st Newfoundland Regiment along the Florizel’s rail ready to depart St. John’s October 4, 1914.

At last all the men, their kit and supplies were on board  and at 6 p.m. the transport hauled of to the stream. Whistles sounded, guns blazed forth, the C.C.C. on board the tug John Green played, the British marching song “It’s a long way to Tipperary”  the members of the contingent and thousands  assembled joining in the chorus. Surrounded by a flotilla of tugs, motor and row boats the Florizel came to anchor in the stream.

All night and yesterday the boats remained near the ship, while the waterside premises particularly the King’s wharf were lined with people anxious to see a relative or friend who might come on shore. … she (Florizel) got underway and steamed grandly through the Narrows, those on shore cheered wildly. Many of the boats and launches accompanied the ship outside the heads.  … Those who had enlisted but were not among the 525 selected bitterly expressed their disappointment.”

Recommended Archival Collection: Search the Archives: https://www.therooms.ca/collections-research/our-collections

Search Individual Soldiers Files here:  https://www.therooms.ca/thegreatwar/in-depth/military-service-files/database

Recommended Exhibit: The First World War had a profound impact on Newfoundland and Labrador. It involved thousands of our people in world-changing events overseas and dramatically altered life at home. Our “Great War” happened in the trenches and on the ocean, in the legislature and in the shops, by firesides and bedsides. This exhibition shares the thoughts, hopes, fears, and sacrifices of Newfoundlanders and Labradorians who experienced those tumultuous years – through their treasured mementoes, their writings and their memories. – See more at: https://www.therooms.ca/exhibits/always/beaumont-hamel-and-the-trail-of-the-caribou#sthash.lv9JmCbn.dpuf

Recommended Reading: Out of a Clear Sky: The Mobilization of the Newfoundland Regiment, 1914-1915 by Mike O’Brien, Newfoundland and Labrador Studies.  Volume 22, Number 2 (2007)    Memorial University of Newfoundland.  Article on line. http://journals.hil.unb.ca/index.php/nflds/article/view/10117/10390

 

 

 

St. John’s man tells the court he was carried away by the fairies.

Archival Moment

October 1, 1880

Residents and tourists are reminded at the beginning of the D'Iberville Trail near New Perlican, Trinity Bay to prepare for fairies. (Photo Credit: Stephanie Tucker, 2017)

Residents and tourists are reminded at the beginning of the D’Iberville Trail near New Perlican, Trinity Bay to prepare for fairies. (Photo Credit: Stephanie Tucker, 2017)

Judges have to deliberate on the evidence that is brought before them, evidence that at times might be challenging to believe. On October 1, 1880 the distinguished Newfoundland jurist Judge James Gerve Conroy had to consider the evidence – he had to consider the existence of fairies.

Newfoundland and Labrador has a rich fairy folklore tradition that is full of stories about fairies (also known as the Good People or the Little People) these fairies are often troublemakers and it was these trouble making fairies that landed (John Ebbs) before the courts.

Ebbs appeared before the Central District Court in St. John’s determined to recover the amount of his summer’s wages from his employer. The employer, Mr. J. Hickey refused to pay his salary arguing that “he (Ebbs) was absent from his work place, without leave, for about thirteen days.”

Ebbs argued that he had done all that he could to get to work, he told the count:

“he left his home two hours before dawn for the purpose of going to work and that all he remembered was seeing a funeral, when he lost his senses and was carried away by the fairies.”

 A witness was called to support his story, the witness under oath told the court “that he discovered the plaintiff, (Ebbs) three days afterwards, lying speechless on the ground.

 Hickey was not amused, the St. John’s newspaper the Evening Telegram reported:

 The defendant (Hickey) did not deny the allegation concerning the interference of the fairies, but submitted that the lost time should be made up.

Judge Conroy found the story of Mr. Ebbs “losing his senses and being carried away by the fairies” as being convincing and in his judgment ordered that the amount that Mr. Ebbs was suing for  “with the exception of some cash”   be paid by  Mr. Hickey.

The Irish born Judge Conroy did not challenge the veracity of the story about being carried away by the fairies, the defendant Mr. Hickey did not deny the allegation concerning the interference of the fairies, Mr. Parsons the lawyer for the plaintiff and the lawyer for the defendant Mr. Greene all remained silent.

It would appear that the courts in St. John’s did believe in fairies.

If you should have an encounter with fairies traditional precautions should be taken, bread carried in the pocket is always a good idea when venturing out into the woods. It might be used as an offering, to allow the human to escape. The other sure way to escape the fairies is to turn an article of clothing inside out.

Recommended Archival Collection: Search the Archives: https://www.therooms.ca/collections-research/our-collections Type:  Central District Court or GN 170.

Recommended Reading: Rieti, Barbara.  Strange Terrain: The Fairy World in Newfoundland. St. John’s, ISER Books, 1991.   “The fairies” of Newfoundland oral tradition are variously envisioned, encountered and interpreted, and this study presents some of these concepts and experiences.

The Spanish Flu in Newfoundland and Labrador

ARCHIVAL MOMENT

September 30, 1918  (100th Anniversary) 

Photo Credit: Volunteer nurses, 1918
These volunteer nurses worked at the King George V Seamen’s Institute during the Spanish influenza pandemic. Located in downtown St. John’s, the institute served as a temporary 32-bed hospital to help treat influenza victims.
Photo by J.C. Parsons. Reproduced from The Newfoundland Quarterly 18.4 (1918), 21.

On September 30,1918 the St. John’s newspaper the Evening Telegram reported three seamen from a steamer out of Burin were admitted to hospital with the flu.

The next day, the Daily News reported that two cases from the schooner Ariceen of Twillingate were taken to hospital.

The Spanish Lady or Spanish Flu was in Newfoundland.

The Allies of World War I came to call it the Spanish flu, primarily because the pandemic received greater press attention after it moved from France to Spain in November 1918. Spain was not involved in the war and had not imposed wartime censorship.

Within two weeks, of the first identified cases in  Newfoundland  the local newspapers  were reporting that several hundred people were infected in St. John’s.

By mid-October, Medical Officer of Health N.S. Fraser had closed the city’s schools, theatres, concert halls, and other public buildings to help prevent the virus from spreading.

In the last week of November 1918, 1,586 cases of influenza and 44 deaths were reported in 28 communities across the island. The highest incidences occurred in St. Mary’s Bay which reported 628 cases.

By February 1919, the epidemic had largely ended on the island, although traces of it remained until the summer.

Before it disappeared, the disease killed 170 people in outport Newfoundland. 62 deaths were reported in St. John’s.

The effects were most devastating in Labrador where the disease killed close to one third of the Inuit population and forced some communities out of existence. Death rates were particularly high in the Inuit villages of Okak and Hebron.

The Spanish influenza pandemic of 1918-19 killed between 20 and 40 million people worldwide, making it one of the largest and most destructive outbreaks of infectious disease in recorded history.

Recommended Archival Collection:  At the Room Provincial Archives Division  explore Death Records 1918-1919. Reels 32 and 33 and GN 2/5. Special  File 352-A, Colonial Secretary’s Department. “Correspondence Re: Outbreak of Epidemic Spanish Influenza in Newfoundland.” November 1918-June 1919.

Recommended Publication: Boats, Trains, and Immunity: The Spread of the Spanish Flu on the Island of Newfoundland Craig T. Palmer, Lisa Sattenspiel, Chris Cassidy: Newfoundland and Labrador Studies: Vol. 22 – Number 2 (2007)  http://journals.hil.unb.ca/index.php/NFLDS/article/view/10120/10396